FREE SPECIAL REPORT - Learn Proven Methods to Reduce Anxiety and Post-Surgery Pain

Clinical Studies

Over 200 clinical studies which have been featured in peer reviewed medial journals including JAMA, The Lancet, and The New England Journal of Medicine have documented the benefits and cost savings of Mind-Body programs for patients undergoing surgery.

A summary of major, quantifiable benefits from larger patient studies is provided here:

Change Improvements Mind-Body Lead Researcher Method
% Patients vs. Control Group and Date Used*
54% Less Pain Montgomery 2007 Hyp.
79% Less Anxiety Tusek 1997 GI
76% Emotional Upset Montgomery 2007 Hyp.
82% Improved Sleep Tusek 1997 GI
75% Less Pain Tusek 1997 GI
50% Less Medication Used Lang 2000 Hyp.
50% Less Anesthesia Used Lang 2000 Hyp.
46% Less Fatigue Montgomery 2007 Hyp.
76% Less Nausua Montgomery 2007 Hyp.
30% Reduced Blood Loss Enquist 1995 Hyp.
37% Faster Healing (2.6 vs. 4.1 Disbrow 1993 Hyp.
days for intestinal motility)
20% Cost Savings per Procedure: Montgomery 2007 Hyp.
$3,146 vs. $3,919
50% Cost Savings: Anesthesia used: Lang 2000 Hyp.
$300 vs. $638
* Hyp. Indicates Hypnosis, and GI Indicates Guided

The vast majority of the studies listed above, and the total of over 200 studies completed have utilized Clinical Hypnosis (Hypn.) as the primary mind-body method, and a number have also used Guided Imagery (GI). Most mind-body interventions in studies have been done live with a practitioner, although a number of studies (Enqvist et al 1995) have demonstrated comparable results with a recorded session.

Meta Studies on Mind-Body Surgery Methods

Several major meta studies have been performed and reports completed on the efficacy on Hypnosis for Surgery and Medicine. A summary of these studies include:

Hypnosis in Medicine 2005 James Stewart MD
Mayo Clinic Proceedings

Summary of Surgery Related Findings from Dr. Stewart’s Review of Medline Article from 1966 to 2004”include:

“Hypnosis offered a moderate to large analgesic effect for many types of pain.”

“Patients in the hypnosis group showed significantly improved healing.”

“Significant benefits include less anxiety, decreased blood pressure, reduced
blood loss, enhanced post-operative well-being, improved intestinal motility, shorter hospital stay, reduced post-operative nausea and vomiting, and reduced need for analgesics”.

The Effectiveness of Adjunctive Hypnosis With Surgery Patients: A Meta-Analysis (Montgomery GH et al) Anest Analg. 2002, 94:1639-1645

“Surgical patients in hypnosis treatment groups has better outcomes that 89% of the patients in the control groups”.””

“Hypnosis as an adjunct to surgery benefits include: decreased pain, anxiety, nausea, and recovery time”

Individual Clinical Studies/Results

Many of the most relevant studies performed regarding mind-body efficacy and surgery are listed below. Copies of individual studies and abstracts can be found on PubMed, Medline or other research databases, and in many cases full reports are available free online.

Mind Body Methods Reduce Pain & Pain Medication

Antall & Kresevec, 2004

Ashton, Whitworth, et al, 2000
Faymonville, Fissette, et al, 1995
Good, Anderson, et al, 2005
Halpin, Speir, et al.
Huth, Broome & Good, 2004
Lambert, 1996;
Lang, Benotsch, et al, 2000
Lang & Hamilton, 1994

Lang, Joyce, et al, 1996
Laurion & Fetzer, 2003
Manyande, Berg, et al, 1995
Meurisse, Hamoir, et al, 1999
Montgomery, Weltz, et al, 2002
Montgomery, et al, 2007
Patterson, Wiechman, et al, 2006
Rensi, Peticca & Pescatore, 2000

Syrjala, Donaldson, et al, 1995
Tusek, Church, et al, 1997
Weinstein & Au, 1991

Mind-Body Methods Result in Faster Recovery

Bennett, 1996
Cowan, Buffington, et al, 2001
Lambert, 1996
Meurisse, Faymonville, et al, 1996

Rapkin, Straubing & Holroyd, 1991
Tusek, Church, et al).

Mind-Body Methods Reduce Anxiety

Bennett, 1996
Bugbee, Wellisch, et al, 2005
Good, 2004
McCaffrey, Taylor, 2005
Pellino, Gordon, et al, 2005

References For Studies Cited:

Antall GF, Kresevic D. The use of guided imagery to manage pain in an elderly orthopaedic population. Orthop Nurs. 2004 Sep-Oct;23(5):335-40.

Ashton C. Jr, Whitworth GC, Seldomridge JA, Shapiro PA, Weinberg AD, Michler RE, Smith CR, Rose EA, Fisher S, Oz MC. Self-hypnosis reduces anxiety following coronary artery bypass surgery. A prospective, randomized trial. J Cardiovasc Surg. 2000 Apr;41(2):335-6.

Bennett HL. A comparison of audiotaped preparations for surgery: evaluation and outcomes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1996. Tampa, FL.

Bugbee ME, Wellisch DK, Arnott IM, Maxwell JR, Kirsch DL, Sayre JW, Bassett LW. Breast core-needle biopsy: clinical trial of relaxation technique versus medication versus no intervention for anxiety reduction. Radiology. 2005 Jan;234(1):73-8. Epub 2004 Nov 24.

Cowan GS Jr, Buffington CK, Cowan GS 3rd, Hathaway D. Assessment of the effects of taped cognitive behavior message on postoperative complications (therapeutic suggestions under anesthesia. Obes Surg. 2001 Oct;11(5):589-93.

Disbrow EA, Bennett HL, Owings JT. Effect of preoperative suggestion on postoperative gastrointestinal modility. West J Med. 1993 May;158(5);488-92.

Enqvist B, von Konow L, Bystedt H. Pre-and perioperative suggestion in maxillofacial surgery: effects on blood loss and recovery. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1995 Jul;43(3):284-94.

Faymonville ME, Fissette J, Mambourg PH, Roediger L, Joris J. Lamy M. Hypnosis as adjunct therapy in conscious sedation for plastic surgery. Reg. Anesth. 1995 Mar-Apr;20(2):145-51.

Good M, Anderson GC, Ahn S, Cong X, Stanton-Hicks M. Relaxation and music reduce pain following intestinal surgery. Res Nurs Health. 2005 Jun;28(3):240-51.

Halpin LS, Speir AM, CapoBianco P, Barnett SD. Guided imagery in cardiac surgery. Outcomes Manag. 2002 Jul-Sep; 6(3):132-7.

Huth MM, Broome ME, Good M. Imagery reduces children’s post-operative pain. Pain. 2004 Jul;110(1-2):439-48.

Jones CW. Hypnosis and spinal fusion by Harrington instrumentation. Am. Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 1977 Jan;19(3):155-7.

Lambert S. The Effects of Hypnosis/Guided Imagery on the Postoperative Course of Children. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 1996 17 (5) 307-310.

Lang EV, Benotsch, EG, Fick, LJ, Lutgendorf S, Berbaum ML, Berbaum, KS, Logan H, Spiegel D. Adjunctive non-pharmacological analgesia for invasive medical procedures: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2000 Apr 29;355(9214) :1486-90.

Lang EV, Hamilton D. Anodyne imagery: an alternative to i.v. sedation in interventional radiology. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994 May;162(5):1221-6.

Lang EV, Joyce JS, Spiegel D, Hamilton D, Lee KK. Self-hypnotic relaxation during interventional radiological procedures: effects on pain perception and intravenous drug use. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1996 Apr;44(2):106-19.

Laurion S, Fetzer SJ. The effect of two nursing interventions on the postoperative outcomes of gynecological laparoscopic patients. J of Perianesthesia Nursing. 2003 Aug;18(4)254-61.

Manyande A, Berg S, Gettins D, Stanford SC, Mazhero S, Marks DF, Salmon P. Preoperative rehearsal of active coping imagery influences subjective and hormonal responses to abdominal surgery. Psychosom Med. 1995 Mar-Apr;57(2):177-82.

Meurisse , M, Faymonville ME, Joris J, Nguyen Dang D, Defechereux T, Hamoir E. Endocrine surgery by hypnosis. From fiction to daily clinical application. Service de Chirurgie des Glandes Endocrines et Transplantation, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Belgique. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 1996 57(6):494-501.

Meurisse M, Hamoir E, Defecheueux T, Gollogly L, Derry O, Postal A, Joris J, Faymonville ME. Bilateral neck exploration under hypnosedation: a new standard of care in primary hyperparathyroidism? Ann Surg. 1999 Mar;229(3):401-8.

Montgomery GH, Weltz CR, Seltz M, Bovbjerg DH. Brief presurgery hypnosis reduces distress and pain in excisional breast biopsy patients. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2002 Jan;50(1):17-32.

Montgomery GH, Bovbjerg DH, Schnur JB, David D, Goldfarb A, Weltz CR, Schechter C, Graff-Zivin J, Tatrow K, Price DD, Silverstein JH. A randomized clinical trial of a brief hypnosis intervention to control side effects in breast surgery patients J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Sep 5;99(17):1304-12.

Patterson DR, Wiechman SA, Jensen M, Sharar SR.Hypnosis delivered through immersive virtual reality for burn pain: A clinical case series. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 2006 Apr; 54 (2):130-42.

Pellino TA, Gordon DB, Engelke ZK, Busse KL, Collins MA, Silver CE, Norcross NJ. Use of nonpharmacologic interventions for pain and anxiety after total hip and total knee arthroplasty. Orthopedic Nursing. 2005 May-Jun; 24 (3):182-90.

Rapkin DA, Straubing M, Holroyd JC. Guided imagery, hypnosis and recovery from head and neck cancer surgery: an exploratory study. Int J Clin Exp Hypn, 1991 Oct;39(4) :215-26.

Syrjala KL, Donaldson GW, Davis MW, Kippes ME, Carr JE. Relaxation and imagery and cognitive-behavioral training reduce pain during cancer treatment: a controlled clinical trial. Pain. 1995 Nv;673 (2):189-98.

Tusek DL, Church JM, Strong SA, Grass JA, Fazio VW Guided imagery: a significant advance in the care of patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum. 1997 Feb;40(2):172-8.

Weinstein EJ, Au PK Use of hypnosis before and during angioplasty. Am J Clin Hypn. 1991 Jul;34(1):29-37.